Pavement design manual september 29, 2017 roadway engineering group pavement design section. Basic concept of subgrade resilient modulus the resilient modulus test is intended to examine the behavior of the soil as a support system for the pavement. Guidelines for the stabilization of subgrade soils in california. Subgrade soil provides support to the remainder of the pavement system. Soil sampling representative soil samples for cbr tests shall be taken from the top 12 inches of the proposed grade by a qualified soils technician or engineer. The rural road design, maintenance, and rehabilitation guide sd9516g2 is part of a series of three guides. Measuring in situ properties of pavement subgrade soils 1, and nchrp. Subgradefoundation design inputs transportation research board. Following the road test, pavement design procedures were developed from the research findings. The pavement structure should be able to provide a surface of acceptable riding quality, adequate skid resistance, favorable light. A highway pavement is a structure consisting of superimposed layers of processed materials above the natural soil subgrade, whose primary function is to distribute the applied vehicle loads to the subgrade. Proper design and construction are absolutely necessary if the pavement is to perform.
Poor subgradesubbase preparation can not be overcome with thickness. The drainage criteria in chapter titled design of subsurface pavement drainage systems, requires a minimum of 4 in 100 mm of drainage layer and 4 in 100 mm of subbase. Ufc 325001 pavement design for roads and parking areas. Nearly onethird or onehalf of the total cost of construction, so careful consideration should be taken in design of pavement. Selection of subgrade modulus for aashto flexible pavement design robert p. Generally there are two methods to design the pavement from cbr california bearing ratio value. The results of these tests are used with the curves to determine the thickness of pavement and its component layers. For cohesive subgrades, a minimum of 95 % of aashto t 180, method d.
Pavement performance can be largely attributed to the care given in designing and preparing its foundation, which is comprised of the subgrade and base layers. For designing the thickness of a road pavement, the strength of the subgrade should be taken as that of the sod at a moisture content equal to the wettest moisture condition likely to occur in the subgrade after the road is opened to traffic. Pdf performance and design of expansive soils as road subgrade. The sudas design manual is written to the engineer developing a specific project. Performance and design of expansive soils as road subgrade. To provide guidance for the thfn design deviation process. Other studies24 also show that the pressures are quite low, considerably less than the bearing strengths of the subgrade.
Base and subgrade layers must provide adequate and moisture resistant strength that meets the design modulus, in. Paul guyer is a registered civil engineer, mechanical engineer, fire protection engineer, and architect with over 35 years experience in the design of buildings and related. The unified facilities criteria ufc system is prescribed by milstd 3007 and provides planning, design, construction, sustainment, restoration, and modernization criteria, and applies. The clayey silt used for the imported subgrade had a liquid limit of 35% and a pi of 16.
The subgrade material should be clean and free from organic matter and should be able to be compacted by roller, to form stable subbase. The overall subgrade comprised natural subgrade, the sandrubble layer, and the imported subgrade layer. The life cycle output can only be as reliable as the input parameters. Any concrete pavement, built of any thickness, will have problems on a poorly designed and constructed subgrade or subbase. Subgrade and subbases design subgrade strength is not a critical element in the thickness design. Guideline on the use of sand in road construction in the.
Therefore, ditch and ballast requirements need to be defined for a given road segment in order to arrive at the proper subgrade width or template to be used. Fol rigid pavements, a rational method for including. On occasion the gbc is separated from the subgrade by a granular subbase course of lower quality and less expensive material. Measurements are standards that can be used for measuring the deflection basins. Sand in road construction in the sadc region is to provide practitioners with a good understanding of the engineering properties of one of the most abundant, naturally occurring materials found in the southern african region sand so as to facilitate the more widespread use of this ubiquitous material in the construction of low volume. This manual is designed to help iowa highway engineers improve the design, construction, and testing of a pavement systems subgrade and subbase layers. Trackbed design programs, such as kentrack and geotrack selig and waters, 1994, require the input of a subgrade modulus for structural analysis. Railroad subgrade support and performance indicators.
The overall strength and performance of a pavement is dependent not only upon its design including both mix design and structural design but also. Hence the performance of the pavement is affected by the characteristics of the subgrade. A solid subbase is a key to a successful building project. Structural section thickness requirements are a function of soil type, vehicle weight, and amount of traffic. The first manual, rural road condition survey guide, provides a. Pdf this paper aims to develop a design guide to help highway engineers in sudan improve design and construction of pavement on expansive subgrades. Roadway design manual 1 txdot 052010 preface the roadway design manual was developed by the texas depart ment of transpor tation to provide guidance in the geometric design of roadway facilities.
Site investigation prior to commencement of any road construction project involving site formation work, site investigation is carried out to establish the geological profile along the road alignment. Gravel road pavements are generally utilized for roads where design traffic flow annual average daily traffic aadt is less than 200. Acts as a drainage layer, by protecting the sub grade from wetting up. The subgrade is the in situ material upon which the pavement structure is placed. Introduction to rigid pavement design ced engineering.
Thickness design gravel wearing coarse thickness 5. To provide an explanation and guidance for which projects on the thfn are affected by the. Subgrade construction subgrade is that portion of the earth roadbed which after having been constructed to reasonably close conformance with the lines, grades, and crosssections indicated on the plans, receives the base or surface material. Subgrades are commonly compacted before the construction of a road, pavement or railway track. Elliott the resilient modulus value 3,000 psi used to represent the aasho road test subgrade in the aashto flexible pavement design equation is examined.
Road and drainage standards drawing name title pdf page. It acts as a working plate form for the construction of upper pavement layers. When such work has been ordered, it shall be carried out in layers, each of which do not exceed 150 mm in depth, and requirements for density and optimum moisture as specified above shall apply for each layer. The purpose of subgrade stabilization is to enhance the strength of the subgrade. April 26, 2018 purpose roadway design manual updates to provide vertical clearance guida nce for roadways on the texas highway freight network thfn.
Flexible pavement design by cbr method is used to determine the total thickness of pavement. Allowable placement of unsuitable soil in embankments. Design and longterm pavement performance are not considered in this manual. This is the most widely used method for the design. Abstract the rural road design, maintenance, and rehabilitation guide was developed to provide the. Design manual iowa statewide urban design and specifications. Harvey partnered pavement research center pprc contract strategic plan element 3. For the imported clay subgrade, which served as the primary subgrade, a dry density of 1. Typical road structure cross section sub grade, base. Design manual ms 1 and their simplified and abridged.
The manual covers designing and constructing pavement subgrades and unbound materials for paved and unpaved roads with emphasis on. For cohesive subgrades, a minimum of 95 % of aashto t 180, method d density modified compaction. This increased strength is then taken into account in the pavement design process. Oct 04, 2015 the overall strength and performance of a pavement is dependent not only upon its design including both mix design and structural design but also on the loadbearing capacity of the subgrade soil. Expansive soils as road subgrade in sudan have been contributing to pavement failures and subsequently causing increased annual maintenance expenditure.
A subgrade might need special drainage structures to let water if it is composed of impermeable soil, and it should be graded to. Special practices for design and construction of subgrades. Snclavalin assessment of subgrade soils for pavement design for highway 407, east extension pickering to oshawa, ontario. It should be not ed at the outset that this document is a guide containing geom etric design recommendations and does not represent an absolute. Cbr method recommended by california state of highways.
Selection of subgrade modulus for aashto flexible pavement design. Cbr test procedure california bearing ratio for road design. Design for uniform support to design a subgrade and a subbase that provide. Design procedures for soil modification or stabilization. Flexible pavement design by california bearing ratio method. This section sets out the standards for pavement design, and specifies the materials which may be used for gravel roads. The results obtained by these tests are used with the empirical curves to determine the thickness of pavement and its component layers. Road design philosophy july 2011 prepared by opus international consultants limited mark edwards wellington office roading design manager level 9, majestic centre 100 willis street, po box 12003 wellington, new zealand telephone. Although there is a tendency to look at pavement performance in terms of pavement structure and mix design alone, the subgrade can often be the overriding factor in pavement performance. The resilient subgrade modulus value is estimated using cbr values in the absence of vigorous laboratory tests.
Pdf pavement design for roads on expansive clay subgrades. In transport engineering, subgrade is the native material underneath a constructed road, pavement or railway track us. Subgrade at time of construction and during the life of the pavement. The upper 500 mm of soil, whether in embankment or in cutting, compacted to a higher density than that of the native soil below it is considered as the subgrade of a flexible pavement as per the current practice in india. Arizona department of transportation roadway engineering group pavement design section 205 south 17th avenue phoenix, arizona 85007 602 7127360. General information the subgrade is that portion of the pavement system that is the layer of natural soil upon which the pavement or subbase is built. Embankment subgrade treatment, moisture density control and special compaction. This structural layer serves as a working platform to permit the efficient construction of the base. Vdot pavement design guide for subdivision and secondary roads in virginia revised 2014 4 2. In a fill section, the subgrade is the top of the embankment or the fill.
The design procedures required some method for considering different subgrade soil types. The modulus of subgrade reaction is an often misunderstood and misused concept for the thickness design of slabsonground. The california bearing ratio test is penetration test meant for the evaluation of subgrade strength of roads and pavements. The manual is an excellent tool for the design engineer to use as the particular aspects of a project are being addressed. Pavement design manual september 29, 2017 page iv preface the american association of state highway officials aasho issued its interim guides for the design of flexible and rigid pavements in 1961 and 1962 respectively, following the 19581960 road test. Introduction to flexible pavement design ced engineering.
Tao, roads and maritime services, new south wales, australia k. This is the most widely used method for the design of flexible pavement. Design guide for improved quality of roadway subgrades and. The deformation with in the bituminous layer is assumed to be controlled by meeting the mix.
The road design process which deals with fitting a road template into the topography uses the subgrade width for cut and fill calculations. Introduction pavement design of a new highway should address many parameters, where some of them are fixed by contractual constraints and where some of them have to be established by testing or. The use of the borrow material does not affect the design thickness of the pavement structure. The soaked and unsoaked cbr of subgrade materials are given in table 6. Rdgn042 pavement design for carriageway construction page 3 of 42 design charts page chart 1 bituminous pavement e subgrade 50mpa 34 chart 2 bituminous pavement e subgrade 100mpa 35 chart 3 bituminous pavement e subgrade 150mpa 36 chart 4 bituminous pavement e subgrade 200mpa 37 chart 5 bituminous pavement e subgrade 250mpa 38.
Front matter estimating stiffness of subgrade and unbound. In the tropics, subgrade moisture conditions under impermeable road. It acts as a separating layer bw subgrade and road base. And one of the major functions of a highway pavement is to reduce the. No credit is accounted for in this modification in the pavement design process. A subgrades performance generally depends on two interrelated. Guidelines for the stabilization of subgrade soils in california authors. Pdf design cbr of subgrade for flexible pavements madhava. Rural road design, maintenance, and rehabitation guide. The californian bearing ratio cbr test is a penetration test used to evaluate the subgrade strength of roads and pavements.
Pavement design is the major component in the road construction. Section 2 earthworks standard specification for urban infrastructure works 25 edition 1, revision 0 september 2002 formation, ensure that the stream is a broad sheet flow which crosses roughly at right angles to the alignment and minimises the likelihood of subgrade softening. The usda forest service earth and aggregrate surfacing design guide 1996 offers useful design information for aggregate surfacing. The output of kentrack is a life cycle estimate of the trackbed structure. It is not a textbook, but rather a document that provides design guidance through references to appropriate national standards and. Very often, samples are taken by borehole drilling for tests including, particle size.
Pavement design guide for subdivision and secondary roads in. The stabilized subgrade is a structural layer that is 12in thick. Nataatmadja, roads and maritime services, new south wales, australia s. Engineering characterization of subgrade soils of jimma. Pdf concrete pavement design, construction, and performance. Geotechnical aspects of pavements fhwa us department of. Bridge berm grading without recoverable slope barnroof section. Assessment of subgrade soils for pavement design louis d. Roads and design method validation from the arlington road tests. A subgrade is made up of native soil that has been compacted to withstand the loads above it. Subgrade classification, foundation for expansive soils and material strength 4. Subgrade is the top surface of an embankment or cut section that is shaped to conform to the typical section upon which the pavement structure and shoulders will be constructed. The mndot geotechnical and pavement manual 2 notes that the performance of a base or subgrade will be proportional to its degree of saturation. The purpose of subgrade modification is to create a working platform for construction equipment.
The other two guides are the rural road condition survey guide sd9516g1 and the rural road management guide sd9516g3. Where required, the subgrade shall be prepared to a depth exceeding 150 mm on sections of the roadway as designated by the consultant. Salo road design considerations existing 10 lanes and 3 aggregate shoulders existing pavement severely alligatored and rutted unrealistic to undercut all bad subgrade areas didnt want to raise the grade due to existing narrow footprint didnt want to spend a fortune to fix but. It intercept upward movement of water by capillary action. Subgrade is that portion of the earth roadbed which after having been constructed to reasonably close conformance with the lines, grades, and crosssections indicated on the plans, receives the base or surface material. It is also called formation level the term can also refer to imported material that has been used to build an embankment construction.44 460 1037 306 841 1074 313 881 1122 141 1626 509 164 1512 752 5 971 1300 1254 1131 119 442 98 568 318 559 1002 571 854 725 1433